The present situation and prospect of organic agriculture and organic food at home and abroad with the development of society, the food safety problem has attracted more and more attention of consumers all over the world, and the polluted healthy food becomes the first choice. Under the impetus of this tide, organic agriculture and organic food can develop rapidly.
1 organic agriculture and organic food development
1.1 The origin and connotation of organic agriculture
Organic agriculture is different from chemical agriculture and traditional agriculture, but also originates from the self-sufficient traditional agriculture. One of the first to propose organic farming was a British agronomy worker working in India, Sir.a.g.howard, who, in the 1930s, proposed a new farming method for organic agriculture instead of modern intensive agriculture, from the perspective of organic humus in the recycling of animals and plants. At the same time, soil scientists in the United States in the "4,000 years of farmers," a book actively advocated to Chinese farmers to learn, that Chinese traditional agriculture to leguminous plants as the center of the rational rotation, the use of manure, compost and other 8 aspects worthy of reference by American farmers. Rodale, who was honored as the father of organic farming in the United States, published the Journal Organic Agriculture and Horticulture in 1942 and founded the first organic farm in the United States in 1945. The International Organic Agriculture Movement Alliance (IFOAM), the most influential organic Agriculture Organization in the 1972, was established in Germany and officially kicked off the global organic agriculture. Thus, organic agriculture was developed in the the 1970s to meet the requirements of modern health concept, completely without artificial chemical synthesis of fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators, hormones, additives and genetically modified varieties and other means of production, for reference to traditional agriculture but the application of a series of sustainable development of modern agricultural technology to engage in agricultural production.
1.2 Concept and standard of organic food
The term "organic food" is translated from English "organic food". The word "organic" here is not a chemical concept. Organic food refers to the ecological environment is not contaminated, production activities conducive to the establishment and restoration of the ecosystem virtuous cycle, in accordance with the requirements of organic agricultural production, and through the independent certification body certification of all food. Organic food than we often mentioned in the production and processing of green foods and pollution-free food standards higher. The organic food standard is: The origin has no pollution. The soil for the cultivation of organic agricultural products should not have been used in any chemical synthetic pesticides in the last 3 years, fertilizers, fodder, herbicides and auxin, etc., not using any chemical-synthesized pesticides, fertilizers, fodder, herbicides and auxin, etc. during the process, no chemical synthesis of food preservatives, added relief, Artificial pigments and organic solvent extraction, etc., during storage and transport, no harmful chemical substances (fungicides, insecticide, etc.) pollution, must comply with the national Food hygiene law requirements and food industry quality standards. There is ample evidence that organic vegetables and fruits contain more compounds than ordinary vegetables and fruits and are more beneficial to human health.
2 Foreign organic Agricultural organic food development status
2.1 Area and distribution of organic farming
Entering the the 1990s, organic agriculture and organic food have been developed rapidly with the high priority of Governments, with some 140 countries beginning or beginning to develop organic agriculture with an area of 2300 hectares of organic farming, mainly in Australia (10.5 million hectares), Argentina ( 3.2 million hectares) and Italy (1.2 million hectares), and Europe has a higher share. The countries with the highest proportion of global organic farming to agricultural production are Liechtenstein (17%), the second is Australia (11.3%) and China is only 0.06%. In the European Union (including 12 member States) and the European Free Trade Association (Ireland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland) and Turkey, and other countries, about 5 million hectares of organic farming area, accounting for about 2% of the total agricultural production area, in these countries organic agriculture development has been faster, in recent years, some countries have reached two-digit growth rate In most Latin American countries, the area of organic farming accounted for only 0.5% per cent of the area of agricultural production, with slow growth and an organic farming area of 4.7 million hectares, with an area of 150 hectares of organic farming in North America and 0.25% per cent of the agricultural production area, and 45,000 on farms engaged in organic production In Asia, the development of organic agriculture is lagging behind, however, the area of organic farming in the transformation period is increasing, with an area of 600,000 hectares currently engaged in organic farming; in Africa, especially in the southern countries, organic agriculture is developing faster, with the more important stimulus being the demand for organic food in developed countries and the preservation of soil fertility, The area of organic farming is 200,000 hectares. The proportion of global organic farming area in each continent is shown in Figure 2.
2.2 Organic agriculture and organic food certification
The certification of organic products is the certification of the entire production system and not just industrial products. The certification center may personally authenticate or authorize the outside inspection team to perform the accreditation task. The certification process should be well documented and can check the entire production process from the original raw material through each production phase to the final product. The early certification bodies were mostly civil society, and in the mid 1980s there were some professional certification bodies, and in the early 1990s the European Union began implementing the official inspection certification system when it published the Organic Agriculture regulations. December 1999 the EU to help consumers easily identify organic agricultural products logo, the development of common organic agricultural products logo. October 2002 U.S. Department of Agriculture regulations on the sale of foods with "organic" labels come into effect. February 14, 2003 at the IFOAM Accreditation ceremony held in Nuremberg, Germany, China's OFDC (State Environmental Protection Administration of the Organic Food Development Center), the United States Qai and the Czech Republic Kez and other three certification bodies received ifoam formal recognition, so far the world has 16 countries 24 The Organic Attestation organization obtains the IFOAM the official approval.
2.3 Problems in organic agriculture and organic food industry
Because organic agriculture and organic food is a new industry, it is inevitable that some problems will be encountered in the development. The major problems facing the world today are: the scale of production and processing of organic agriculture is not large enough, the production entities engaged in organic agriculture are small and medium sized farms, and the acquisition and processing are also dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises, the scale development has not yet formed; , store direct and supermarket sales accounted for the proportion is not high; Organic agricultural policy support is not reasonable, organic agricultural policy support is relatively concentrated in the production level, the processing, marketing enterprises not enough support; Organic food certification is expensive, many countries do not have their own certification bodies, increase the cost of organic food The mutual recognition and credibility of organic food standards in different countries, and the fraudulent behavior of fake organic food in the market seriously restricts the development of organic industry. These problems will be solved through the development of government leadership, market cultivation, technology integration and legal protection.
3 Development of organic agriculture and organic food in China
3.1 Development status
Organic food in China started late, but it developed rapidly. 1984 China Agricultural University, China Sustainable Agriculture Development Center began to carry out organic agriculture and organic food research work. 1 9 9 4 years National Environmental Protection Bureau Organic Food Development Center (OFDC) was established, marking the development of China's organic food and certification management work nationwide. Since then, the State Environmental Protection Administration of organic Food Development Center in Yunnan, Heilongjiang and other 21 provinces, municipalities or autonomous regions set up a sub-center or industry centers, responsible for the development of organic food quality control and management work. 1995, the State Environmental Protection Administration has formulated the "Organic Food Labeling management Charter" and "organic food production and processing technical specifications", the preliminary formation of a relatively sound organic food production standards and certification management system. In order to integrate with the market, "organic food certification standards" basically maintained with the international common standard of consistency. By the end of 2001, the certified Organic production base and organic conversion base area of 160,000 mu and 260,000 mu (excluding water and wild), the certification of nearly 200 species, and the annual increase in a larger range. China's OFDC has officially received ifoam recognition on February 14, 2003, OFDC has achieved recognition with most IFOAM recognized organic certification bodies, marking that our standards have been fully in line with the basic standards of IFOAM, for our organic food to explore the international market to provide a guarantee.
3.2 Favorable conditions for the development of organic agriculture and organic food in China
Comparing with the development conditions of organic agriculture and organic food in China and abroad, our country has more advantages in development. China's vast territory, the western region is located in the remote, follow the traditional agricultural production, natural resources are not destroyed, little or no use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides and other synthetic materials, showing the natural ecological advantages and local resources advantages, to avoid the developed countries and areas of the process of backtracking; China's biological variety And the vast majority of plant and animal species have not been genetically reorganized, many agricultural and sideline products can be transformed into organic food; China's rural labor resources are abundant, can adapt to the large demand of the labor force of organic agriculture; our farmers have good habits of intensive cultivation and machine fertilizer, and they use manual and simple tools to weed The rich experience of ecological technology in preventing and controlling diseases and pests; At the same time, the development of organic agriculture conforms to ecology and sustainable development strategy; The organic food market has great potential and the price is 2 ~6 times higher than ordinary food, so it will generate huge profits and become a new economic growth point. In line with China's rural industrial structure adjustment policy, the Government's strong support. All these favorable factors will promote the rapid development of organic agriculture and organic food in our country.
3.3 Some suggestions on the development of organic agriculture and organic food at the present stage in China
3.3.1 to perfect relevant laws and regulations
In order to ensure the healthy development of organic agriculture and organic food, the relevant state departments should formulate and perfect relevant laws and regulations as soon as possible, establish a high standard of reputable certification system, and provide effective pass for Chinese organic food to enter the international market conveniently. At the same time, we should manage the organic industry according to law, increase market supervision, improve market transparency, make outstanding contributions to organic production, individuals and groups to carry out rewarded, the mark of counterfeit organic products, affect the reputation of organic products in China to pursue legal responsibility, and impose severe punishment. We should rely on law to protect our organic food in the international good reputation.
3.3.2 to strengthen scientific guidance and strengthen process management
The development of organic food is a kind of technological progress, rather than a simple regression of traditional agricultural cropping and processing methods. The organic food development each link has the strict control standard, must strengthen from before the planting soil, the planting process, the harvest, the processing, the packing, the sale and so on each link management, cannot only pay attention to the result examination. Without scientific management and strict process control, the development of organic food can not be realized. To the organic food producers, processors, sellers to carry out training, strengthen scientific and technological guidance, improve their quality. We should increase scientific and technological input, try to discover and develop new ways and technologies of organic agriculture, pay attention to the transformation of scientific and technological achievements, reduce production costs, make our organic food in the international market invincible.
3.3.3 should integrate resources advantage to form scale development
To overcome the decentralization of small-scale peasant economy and establish the scale development of "science and Technology + company + base + peasant household", we should attract funds widely, borrow the experience of developed countries, take the road of scale production and operation, and form several large groups with strength. Only in this way to promote the popularization of science and technology and the unified implementation of standards, it is conducive to reducing production costs and transaction costs, in order to improve the competitiveness of enterprises.
According to industry analysts, the global trade in organic food in the next 10 years will be from the current annual average of 11 billion U.S. dollars to 100 billion U.S. dollars. From the regional market, the current annual trade in organic food in the United States is 6 billion U.S. dollars, the European Union is 20 billion mark, Japan is also around billions of U.S. dollars, the next 10 years, the United States and other developed countries of organic food trade volume of annual growth is expected to reach 20%~30%, most of them by imports. The total demand of organic food market is increasing rapidly. China's organic food has a huge international market and potential domestic market. The international demand for organic products in China has increased year, and domestic organic food consumption has also shown a rapid upward trend. At present, the production of organic food in our country can not meet the demand of the domestic market, so long as we seize the opportunity and play our own advantages, after several years of rapid development, the organic food in our country has increased from 0.1% of the Global Organic food trade volume to 1%~2%, forming an annual export of more than 1 billion dollars.
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