The types of humic acid are diverse. Natural mineral humic acid is mainly the organic matter which is formed by microbial decomposition and transformation, and it is widely found in soil, peat and weathered coal, which plays an important role in plant growth and soil ecosystem.
Humic acid is the main function of humic acid fertilizers, followed by some nutrients, such as large amount, medium trace, microorganism and so on. The complex structure and properties of humic acid have determined that humic acid fertilizer is a multifunctional organic fertilizer. Among them, the improvement of soil properties is one of the most important effects of humic acid.
Improved acidic soils and saline soil
The granular structure is the basis of soil fertility. The application of humic acid fertilizer has proved that humic acid fertilizer can increase soil granule structure. According to the experiment of Shenyang ecological application of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the application of humic acid fertilizer to soil water stabilized aggregates increased 10%~20%, and the soil water stabilized granular structure increased significantly in the experiment of application of bio-humic acid compound fertilizer. After the fertilizer use, the soil is loose, the plant grows vigorously, and the soil resistance is enhanced.
Humic acid is a kind of organic weak acid containing a variety of active groups, the weak acid (same weak base) and weak acid salt are combined to buffer, that is to a certain extent, the ph value of the solution can be maintained roughly unchanged.
More acidic soil in the south of China, mostly red and yellow mud fields, the soil ph (ph) in the 4.5~6, and some even reached 3.5, not suitable for crop growth, but also to the soil microbial activity ability greatly weakened. Phosphate fertilizer, the formation of insoluble iron phosphate and aluminum phosphate, also difficult to be absorbed by the plant.
But humic acid fertilizers are applied to increase the humic acid in the soil, so that humic acid can be used in soil with iron ions, aluminum ions, such as the formation of a new chemical compounds, thus reducing the iron and aluminum ions on the toxicity of crops, but also can be substituted with iron, aluminum ions with the hydrogen and oxygen root, the hydrogen ions in the middle and role, and to reduce the retention of phosphorus. In addition, the buffering effect of humic acid itself reduces the acidity of acidic soil and is beneficial to crop growth.
In the reform of saline-alkali land, the research on saline-alkali soil of humic acid fertilizer has been carried out in Shenyang ecological application of CAs for many years. It has been proved that the application of humic acid fertilizers can significantly transform saline-alkali soil.
Firstly, it can change the structure of soil surface, increase the granule structure, destroy the salt rising condition, and play the role of "separating salt" to reduce the accumulation of salt in the soil surface. In addition, humic acid fertilizers can adsorb and prevent a large amount of harmful ions from the soluble salts of the soil, reduce the concentration of salt in the soil solution, thus reducing the salt concentration in the aqueous solution when the seed is in the root. For example, Dongying in Shandong Province applied Humic acid fertilizers on heavy sieversiana, and the seedling rate was increased from 20%~30% to 90%, increasing grain yield by 53.5%.
Promote soil microbial system balance
Humic acid fertilizers not only provide a variety of nutrients to microorganisms, but also create good soil environment conditions for microbial activity. There are many microorganisms in the soil that are invisible to the naked eye, and there are tens of millions of, hundreds of millions of, or even billions of of microbes in each gram of soil, and their effects on soil ecosystems are evident.
According to the determination, the application of humic acid fertilizers, the decomposition of cellulose microorganisms increased by one, decomposition of amino acids released nitrogen of the bacteria increased 1~2 times, the soil from the increase of twice times the growth of ammonia-like bacteria. This can accelerate the decomposition of organic matter in soil, increase the amount of soil humus, release and accumulation of available nutrients, and facilitate crop uptake and utilization.
Because the humic acid fertilizer is black, the soil is deepened in the soil color, the soil increases the absorption of the sunlight, and the humic acid promotes the soil microorganism decomposition activity, produces the heat, therefore can raise the ground temperature, enhances the crop cold hardiness antifreeze ability. According to the experimental observation, the application of humic acid fertilizer can improve the geothermal 1~3.
In a word, humic acid fertilizer is an important development direction in the process of fertilizer development.
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